Emotion means to move something. It was only in the 18th century that a sense of strong feeling came to the front. It is noteworthy to us because they contrast to the norm of rational, calculating and controlled thoughts (Barbalct, 1998, pp. 29-61). emotion is an autonomic biological mechanism. Emotions are feeling that goes on with thinking. It doesn’t exist alone, apart from thoughts. Thoughts are implicit and difficult to understand but ultimately knowable ( Beck, 1988). There are five characteristics of emotion. They are quality, intensity, manner in which they are resolved, organization and behavioral expression.
There are three types of components of an emotional response. First is behavioral response which is composed of macular movements appropriate to the situation that bring out them. Second is autonomic response which facilitates behaviors and provide alert mobilization of energy for vigorous movement. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system decreases while the sympathetic branch increases. As a result heart rate increases, and there is a possible change in the size of blood vessels that shunt the circulation of blood away from the digestive organ toward the muscle.
Autonomic responses are reinforced by hormonal responses. The adrenal medulla-epinephrine and nor epinephrine secretes hormones which increase blood flow to the muscle and cause the conversion of nutrient into glucose. Steroid hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex which makes glucose available to the muscles. Stimulation can produce behaviors associated with anger or fear. Separate neural systems control the overt behaviors, the autonomic responses, and the hormonal secretions associated with these emotional reactions. the amygdala controlled the integration of this responses.
The amygdala complex can be found within the temporal lobes several nuclei with different inputs and outputs compose the amygdala. These nuclei have different functions. The amygdala consists of medial nucleus, the lateral/basolateral nuclei, the central nucleus, and the basal nucleus primarily. The limbic system includes hippocampus, cingulate cortex, amygdala various nuclei parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The cingulate cortex reduces level of tension and anger if damage. The inactivation of the medial frontal cortex impaired the ability to identify angry expression only.
If the insula is activated by disgust and primary taste cortex causes damage thus, fail to recognize other peoples disgust. The right hemisphere is sensitive to emotional stimuli compared to the left hemisphere. for example, damage in the right hemisphere produces difficulty in interpreting facial expression, the right amygdale is activated by laughing or crying and inactivation of the right hemisphere via Wada procedure causes past events to be remembered. Emotion is disrupted more often, emotion helps in survival. It may change course, diminish, or blossom eventually. Emotional stimulus maybe internal or external.
The autonomic nervous system causes muscle tension, irritability, a pounding heart, butterflies in the stomach, restlessness, frequent urinations, dryness of the throat and mouth, and more of internal reactions. This reaction is normally involuntary. The sympathetic branch prepares the body for emergency by raising a number of bodily systems and inhibiting others thus, increases the chance to survive an emergency. The parasympathetic branch restores balance conserve bodily energy reserve emotional arousal helps build up energy and relaxes the body. It response more slowly than the sympathetic branch.
Parasympathetic responds much more slowly than Sympathetic branch. Thus- – increased heart rate, muscle tension and other signs of arousal do not fade for 20-30 minutes after an intense emotional experience such as fear. And, the Parasympathetic may overreact after a strong emotional shock –lower blood pressure too much, or one may become dizzy or faint from shock. Parasympathetic rebound – parasympathetic branch overreacts during intense fear. It can cause death. Some soldiers literally die of fear in combat. Older persons or those with heart problems may have a heart attack or collapse due to sympathetic activation.
The ways people walk and carry them selves are often reliable indicators of self concept, heath, and current mood. Erect posture and an active, purposeful stride suggest a feeling of well being. Slouch posture and as low, shuffling gait suggest dejection or physical discomfort. Tense posture and a rapid posture, determined gait suggest anxiety or anger. Likewise, the sitting or lying postures of a person can communicate feelings. No part of the body is as expressive as the face. Feelings of joy, sadness, fair, surprise, anger, and disgust can be conveyed by facial expression.
The muscle around the eyes and the mouth are particularly expressive. Many facial expressions generally convey a universal meaning. The smile conveys happiness. Contempt is conveyed by the mouth turned down, the head tilted back, and the eyes directed down the nose. No single expression can be interpreted accurately, however , with out considering other reinforcing physical cues, the setting in witch it occurs, the expression of others in the same setting, and the cultural background. Borderline Personality Disorder is characterized by persistent behavior, interpersonal relationships, instability in moods, and self-image.
This flux disturbs the individual’s sense of self-identity, work life, family relationship and long-term planning. Originally thought to be at the “borderline” of psychosis, people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from a disorder of emotion regulation. While less well known than schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness), BPD is more common, affecting 2% of adults, mostly young women. There is a high rate of self-injury without suicide intent, as well as a significant rate of suicide attempts and completed suicide in severe cases.
Patients often need extensive mental health services and account for about 20% of psychiatric hospitalizations. While a person with depression or bipolar disorder typically endures the same mood for weeks, a person with BPD may experience intense bouts of anger, depression and anxiety that may last only hours, or at most a day. These may be associated with episodes of impulsive aggression, self-injury, and drug or alcohol abuse. Distortions in cognition and sense of self can lead to frequent changes in long-term goals, career plans, jobs, friendships, gender identity, and values.
Sometimes people with BPD view themselves as fundamentally bad, or unworthy. They may feel unfairly misunderstood or mistreated, bored, empty, and have little idea who they are. Such symptoms are most acute when people with BPD feel isolated and lacking in social support, and may result in frantic efforts to avoid being alone. People with BPD often have highly unstable patterns of social relationships. While they can develop intense but stormy attachments, their attitudes towards family, friends, and loved ones may suddenly shift from idealization (great admiration and love) to devaluation (intense anger and dislike).
Thus, they may form an immediate attachment and idealize the other person, but when a slight separation or conflict occurs, they switch unexpectedly to the other extreme and angrily accuse the other person of not caring for them at all. Even with family members, individuals with BPD are highly sensitive to rejection, reacting with anger and distress to such mild separations as a vacation, a business trip, or a sudden change in plans.
These fears of abandonment seem to be related to difficulties feeling emotionally connected to important persons when they are physically absent, leaving the individual with BPD feeling lost and perhaps worthlessness. Suicide threats and attempts may occur along with anger at perceived abandonment and disappointments. People with BPD exhibit other impulsive behaviors, such as excessive spending, binge eating and risky sex. BPD often occurs together with other psychiatric problems, particularly bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and other personality disorders.