Narrative of roots and the way emotions play a role in the lives ofmigrants
Thispaper presents the annotated bibliography of the research onnarrative of roots and the way emotions play a role in lives ofmigrants. Roots can be interpreted as part of a plant that supportsit, offering nourishment and water underground. Also, root can bedescribed as a foundation through which a house is built, withoutwhich it cannot stand. In human context, roots can be perceived asour origin that accords us the culture and behaviours that weexhibit. Losing our roots can be likened to losing of our identities. Therefore, it remains important that human beings remain grounded intheir roots so as to experience the self-worth and inner peace thatcomes with it. In most cases, artists tend to concentrate on themigration, mark making or emotions separately. My work was quitedifferent. It involved mark making to reflect the emotions of themigrants. The main theme was the emotions and subjects that areinvolved. This entailed painting the background and printing it usingblack and white colours. Thereafter, it was put on Photoshop. In thispaper, I present the annotated bibliography of the texts and visualsthat informed my work. Ten key texts and ten visual examples arepresented. The key texts have been chosen from authors all over theworld. They contain important information that informed by work.Also, the visuals used relate to painting, emotions and/orimmigration, hence relevant in my work.
Key TextsMobile Elites. (2015). Deconstructing Belongingin Lifestyle Migration: Tracking the Emotional Negotiations of theBritish in Rural France. European Journal of Cultural Studies,pp. 1-23.
Thisjournal was written by Mobile Elites in 2015. The authors examineemotional negotiations marking the lived experience of the Britonsliving in rural parts of France. Taking a neutral side from what themigrants and scholars believe, this article shows that emotionscauses a sharp relief ambivalence that is experienced by severalmigrants regardless of their apparent privilege. This is wellillustrated through different real experiences of some migrants asthey move beyond migration narratives into lived experiences. Themain objective of this article seems to lie between the migrationfrom the parent country to the host country and related experiences.The section that mostly informs this research is about the ‘Emotionsand Lifestyle Migrant Subjectivities’. Rather than producing theirown opinion, the authors of this article cite works by several otherauthors on issues of migration and research in order to demonstratehow the issues of migrants and emotions have been in most casesoverlooked. This journal on cultural studies seems to be very muchinformed on issues of migrant and emotions. This is demonstrated bythe detailed and well organized sections, coupled with real lifeexperiences for the migrants. This makes this article reliable andinformative in the current research.
Ofsted Publications. (2009). Making a Mark: Art,Craft and Design Education. England.
Thisarticle is about art and mark making. Though it is does not containinformation on emotions and migration, the information on mark makinginformed my work. The authors argue that ability to interpret andappreciate whatever is communicated, imagined or observed is majorinfluenced by quality of their skills in art, craft and design. Thearticle has mostly emphasized on the need to have good skills inorder to be able to make marks in art and recommends the importanceof education institutions to have a clear strategy towards promotingart, craft and design through mark making.
Ducasse, C. J. (2007). Art and the Language ofthe Emotions. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 23 (1),pp. 109-112.
Thisis a journal on Aesthetics and Art Criticism. The main aim of thearticle is to demonstrate how art can be used to express emotions.The author expresses art as an emotional expression of personality.The article introduces the relationship between art and emotions.There are ten major areas covered by this article. These includeexpression and transmission, arts and fine arts, the expression ofemotion, emotions and feelings, sadness versus imagination ofsadness, venting against objectification of sadness, aestheticcontemplation, objectifying feelings in art, sources of emotionalimport for objects and finally, the language of emotions. Ducassehas demonstrated in a very detailed manner the meaning of art, itsobjective and the capacity of the creator artist. This article hasbeen written in memory of Thomas Munro, who was a great artist. Twomain artists featured in this article include Tolstoy (1899) andVeron (1882). By the fact that this article has been certified byJSTOR, the credibility of its use as a reference material isjustified. Also, the context of the paper relates to emotions andart. This makes it reliable for use in the current work.
Zorana, I., Jessica, H. and Marc, B. (2014).Creativity, Emotions and Arts. Santander, Spain. Botín Foundation
Thisis a report that is organized, coordinated and promoted by BotinFoundation from Spain. The main objective of the report is to makepeople become more creative in all aspects of life, especiallythrough creative works like art. The authors argue that the maindriver towards creativity and innovativeness is attitude, criticalthinking and knowledge. The beginning of the article comprises ofbeautiful pieces of art. This, in some way, prepares the reader onwhat to expect in the paper. The report comprises of severalchapters, each relating to different genies of art like music.Nevertheless, all the chapters express a similar idea of art being acomplex process that entails creativity to describe the socialfunctions. The authors claim that a creative attitude is achieved byobserving the world with receptiveness and curiosity so as totranslate into creativity, and that any unmanaged anxiety limits theconsistency in creative thinking. The article also givesrecommendations on how art can be applied in various programmes inSpain. Though the article does not explicitly define art and itsrelationship to emotions, I find it critical in informing the currentwork about the interrelationship between art, emotions andcreativity. This is especially relevant to the current work since itoffers an idea about art and emotions, particularly in the sectionthat the article notes that working around constraints enhancescreativity. I have been an immigrant and though my experience has notbeen the best, it provides a framework for my work as an artist. I amable to express emotional experience through art from a first-handperspective.
Ismay, B. (1986). How Does Art Express Emotions?The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 45 (2), pp.175-181.
Thisjournal is a publication of Blackwell Publishing. The journalexplains how art is used to express emotions. The article talksexclusively on qualities or emotions that describe how people feel,and the properties of those feelings that can be expressed throughart. The author argues that how a certain piece of work can beexpressive in nature showing emotions must reflect the problem todemonstrate that it is not only the conscious entities that can haveemotions. In a very detailed manner, the author in this articleshows that art is both a psychological and critical activity otherthan being philosophical. Two major parts have been cited on how artis used to express emotions. The first section is analyzing meaningof schemata while the second part entails explaining relationshipbetween art and emotions. The article has been used in the currentwork due to its rich ideas on how art is used to express emotions andoutlines the different ways that an artist should avoid in casehe/she wants to use art in order to express emotions. This articleprovides reliable information for use in the current work onemotional experiences of migrants. The journal informs onalternatives to invoking an audience through use of expressiveproperties such as colors. This played a major role in my choice ofcolors that are supposed to reflect sad emotions.
Paul J. S. (2005). Emotional responses to art:From collation and arousal to cognition and emotion. Review ofGeneral Psychology, 9, pp. 342-357
Inthis journal, Paul demonstrates the intimate relationship between artand emotions. This is achieved by explaining clearly the evolution ofart from the ancient times where artists have used art to evoke,shape and modify the human feelings. In his explanation of arts andemotions, Paul cites the scientific explanation of art and emotions.Paul has referred to research by other authors such as Ekman andFresian, 1971 and Tomkins, 1962 on how to tackle the hedonicqualities of art through experimental psychology. The articledemonstrates the transition between the traditional art and modernart, and recommends the need for the study of psychology of emotionsin order to be able to express them through works of art. Thediversity of events has been demonstrated as the major factor thatinvokes emotions. This implies that in the current case ofimmigration, the extent of the level of emotions is in such a waythat when the term immigrant is mentioned, the only thing that comesinto the mind of a person is poor living conditions and negativeemotions for the subjects involved. Therefore, this article, throughits subdivisions explains the need to take into consideration theemotions that have high probability of causing emotions, and when putthrough works of art, they can easily be understood. This has beendone alongside graphical representations to illustrate the ideafurther. Visually, Paul has succeeded in explaining his ideas, andthis makes them to be understood easily.
Henrik, H., Reidar, H. & Vanessa, M. P.(2008). The Perception and Evaluation of Visual Art. EmpiricalStudies of the Arts 26 (2), pp. 197-218.
Thisarticle is about visual arts and how it can be evaluated. Henrikworks with University of Athens, Reidar works with Georgia Instituteof Technology, while Vanessa is from University of Athens. Theinstitutions are reputable and any research from personalities fromthese institutions is credible. The authors start by describingvisual arts, its evolution, and how people have been perceiving andevaluating it. The article concentrates much on paintings, andexplains in a detailed manner how art is perceived, its constituentsand the various attributes such as cognition and effect. Furthermore,the article explicitly explains how visual art evokes emotionalresponse and the interplay of emotions and cognition. The authorspropose an emotional and cognitive model that focusses on invokingemotions to people who do not have background knowledge in art. Sucha model seem appropriate for it means that if people without anyknowledge in art can understand the artwork and interpret theemotions demonstrated, then the artist can be considered as reallygood. The authors appear to be well informed on issues of art andemotional expression, especially because of how the differentsections relating to the same are well explained in the journal. Thefacts represented in this journal are based on actual empiricalstudies on real human subjects, hence very reliable.
Amber, E. L. (2011). Expressive arts therapies:Working with survivors of torture. Torture 21 (1), pp. 39-47.
Thisarticle by Amber is about the expressive art therapies in torturetreatments. The journal has reviewed 26 articles how torture can becategorized based on the modalities in art therapy alongside othertherapies such as music, rituals and drama. Amber describes thedifferent conditions like trauma that can be expressed and healedthrough art. She claims that various conditions have been treatedthrough art therapy. Though this article centres more on art andtherapy, it gives a good road map on how art is used. Since the mainaim of my work was mark making to demonstrate the emotionalexperiences of the immigrants, the same art is demonstrated by Amberto be critical as a therapy for those who have been tortured. Themanner in which amber has organized this article make it not onlyinteresting to read and follow through, but also shows her awarenessof the article topic. She concludes by giving the considerations thatneed to be taken into account in use of expressive therapies. Shealso gives the learning pointing and recommends works by otherauthors that are relevant to her topic.
Shugrina, M., Betke, M. and Collomosse, J., 2006,June. Empathic painting: interactive stylization through observedemotional state. In Proceedings of the 4th international symposiumon Non-photorealistic animation and rendering (pp. 87-96). ACM.
Theauthors in this article have demonstrated empathic painting thatreflects the emotional state of the viewer. The authors are computerexperts who describe in a detailed manner the use of controlparameters that are high level. The authors are from USA and England.Such a diversity implies the richness of the article and hencereliable. Though the article is majorly on computer programs, it wasvery informative, especially on issues related with Photoshop in mycurrent work. The article reports experiment using painterlystylization. This allows interactive user sessions where the userspecifies the emotional ambience that they want conveyed usingcertain artistic rendering such as anger, elation or despair. Theinterface developed by these authors in interactive and itpurposefully displays the emotions of the users in real time tomirror those that can be represented in digital canvas. The articleis very informative particularly in design of parameterized conceptslike emotions. Various models have been used alongside detailedexplanations for the empirical results. Similar works by otherauthors have been cited, and this makes this article very reliableand credible source.
Nina, G. S., Linda, B. and Christina, B. (1971).Transnational: A New Analytic Framework for Understanding Migration.New York. Annals New York Academy of Sciences.
Thisbooks presents a conceptualization towards appreciating and beingconscious of the migrants within a particular population. The authorsadvocate for transnationalism that entails immigrants building theirsocial fields that help them link together to their countries oforigin and the host countries. The article explains about the plightof immigrants from various places like Caribbean and Haiti and whocurrently live in New York. Real life experiences have been used toillustrate the level of dissatisfaction amongst many immigrants. Someof the immigrants lived unhappily despite having well-paying jobs intheir host countries. Their always express the need to support theirkinsmen back at home. This and many other have been used by theauthors to show the emotional experiences that the immigrants gothrough. This is a clear indication that the life of an immigrantcannot be at ease. Various emotions engulf them. These includesadness, nostalgia and despair amongst others. The authors haveexplained their topic in a very detailed and illustrative mannerusing real life examples. This gives the article the surrealistessence. The context of the article and explanations provided by theauthor plays a major role in my work. Since the article relates toimmigrants and the emotional experiences, then it provides a firmframework for my work, hence reliable.
Key Visual ExamplesOne Way Ticketby Jacob Lawrence
Thisshows a One Way Ticket visual by Jacob Lawrence. This is amongst the‘The Migration Series’ paintings that reflect the daily lives ofAfrican American who migrated to the North from South in quest foropportunity. In this painting, Lawrence has used different colours,images and texts to illustrate the nature of a chaotic crowd as theypush towards tiny ticket windows. From the initial perspective, it isclear that migrants suffer a lot in their journey towards the hostcountry. They tend to move from their home countries, arepresentation of their routes, to strange countries. This is welldeduced from the fact that the crowd is made up of majorly Blacks andthe destinations are marked as Chicago, New York and St. Louis (Noyand Noy‐Sharav2013, p. 102).
Emotional Manipulation by Matthew Stone
Theemotional manipulation is one of the Matthew Stone’s figuration ofthe abstract art. This artwork features colourful and largebrushstrokes that are created using photography while maintaining thetactile qualities of the painting. The Emotional Manipulation can beconsidered as works of art that combines modern and traditionaltechniques with digital paintings. In his paintings, Matthews useslarge brushstrokes that dissect canvas in a similar manner likelimbs. He created the paintings on a glass surface then photographedthe results and manipulated the results digitally in Photoshop. Thiscreated weaves and gestures that cannot be achieved by just using thepaint, removing the marks that are unwanted and working with coloursprior to printing resultant collages on a hand-primed canvas made ofraw linen. From the analysis of this artwork, it is evident thatMatthew Stone has managed to establish a body of work for emotionalmanipulation that tends to manipulate people’s idea on what art isand the perception of images created through art (Silvia2005, p. 119).
Asterism: Anni Albers by Andrea Geyer: 2016
InAsterism, Geyer has used portraits of famous women artists like AnniAlbers, who contributed to Bauhaus. The work of art displayed aboveconsists of straight lines and symmetric configurations. The collagesappear charming with the face of Anni looking like a piece ofmisplaced puzzled with eyes and mouth as forehead and arms upsidedown. The uncanny and fragmented image of the artists as painting byGeyer illustrates that despite of the women being creative, theyreceived minor attention when compared to male counterparts. This iswell illustrated by Geyer when he paints the face to appear distortedusing a kaleidoscope effect (Svasek2012, p. 67).
Jesus Leguizamo Paintings
Inhis paintings, Jesus Leguizamo, A Colombian Painter uses acombination of realistic elements of the portraiture and abstract tocreate surreal pieces that demonstrate emotion. Jesus’ paintingsare almost similar to the oil-on-canvas renditions of the flitch art,with the subjects being interrupted using smears of paint and coloursplotches.
Thepaintings feel like the intimate peeks in someone’s state of mindand emotions. The expressive brushstrokes appear to convey the rawsense of mental tumult or confusion. Leguizamo’s paintings possesssome form of dynamism. They appear as though a motion capture camerasnapped one frame of the subject. He has explored the human fragilityusing depiction of people that blurs and erases, hence defining theface of a human being.
Paintings by Benjamin Bjorklund
BenjaminBjorklund is a Swedish artist. His artwork reflects the inspirationin everyday lives of people. His main objective is to regularly seekthe interpretations of human character and emotions through his work.
Hiscompositions are simple in nature. For instance, in the artworkabove, Benjamin has demonstrated the emotions of the subjects, whichfrom the first glance, they appear to be in deep thought. This pieceof art is critical in the current study due to its expression ofemotions on human characters.
Exiles by Patrick Hennessey 1943
Thispainting by Hennesey depicts the plight of Irish emigrants. This isconsidered as one of the most disturbing painting that reflects thehallmarks of the emigrant scenes (Dugglebyand Lawrence 1998, p. 72).This painting is a surrealist that depicts vulnerability ofmid-century and ill-prepared emigrants who faced the urban wasteland.The artist has used smokestacks and cliffs, alongside plumes orclouds of pollution. The guy appear disturbed, even is clothing istattered. This is a clear representation of human experience throughart, hence reliable source in the current research.
Exodus by Brian McCarthy
Thispiece of art depicts the emigrants’ journey using a boat that isbedecked with a shamrock and small white flag. The picture is anillustration of the hardship and challenges that faces immigrants.For instance, Brian has used colour of the sky to reflect hope, maybesalvation of some sort, hence the boat tends to move towards the‘bluish’ sky. Nevertheless, he has used rocks to show that theimmigrants may never reach their destination, especially because ofthe hard rocks ahead of them.
Thispiece of art is relevant in the current study since it majorlyrelates to colouring to reflect emotions.
Authentic Emotions by Sandy Rubinfeld
SandyRubinfeld painting illustrates a raw picture of a person withauthentic emotions. He has portrayed the feelings through ametaphorical technique instead of the realism depiction of subjects.The emotional oil painting in deeply emotional and expressive. He hasused roughly hewn works to create a connection of atmosphere,narrative behind the expression and the connection between them. Thismakes the image appear real and immediate than most of thehyper-realistic portraits.
Tanja Ostojic: Looking for a Husband with EUpassport
Inher picture, Ostojić demonstrates the plight of immigrants inEuropean Union. In her artwork on ‘Looking for a Husband with EUPassport’, the artist addresses the delimitations, injustices andexclusions existing in Europe. She has tried to shed light throughInternet on the problems that women immigrants experience throughartistic expression. Tanja’s work is guided by the engagement withthe intellectual, emotional and physical consequences related todisplacement and migration. The work interrogates exclusion andinclusion mechanisms that were mainly influenced by her migrations inthe European Union in addition to her marriage to a stranger. Theartist has used art to express and critique the restrictions inmigration within the EU that compelled women get married to citizensof EU in order for them to be incorporated in the region. This pieceis a representation of contemporary art system that has been majorlyresulted from economic injustices in the societies, hence makingartists express those injustices through art. This piece is relevantto the current work as it demonstrates the use of art to correct somevices in the society such as use of humiliating and derogativestatements on immigrants.
Abstract drawing and a hammer body migrant ofCeline Monier
Thisart piece presents the portrait of Celine Monier with an abstractdrawing and a hammer in what looks like corner of a studio. Thedrawing of a woman is abstract and she seems to rest on a red cushionand drape. The artist has used the illusion of super real using halosthat are dark and light in colour, with the body having coloured andlight lines. A hammer is used to provide contrasting diagonalstowards the edge of the plane. The artist shows a dynamic mortalityof the sinews and flesh, as well as the bright insistence of thehuman mind and muscles. In web of associations, the artistillustrates the human body in a way that can rarely be observed withdisinterested eyes. The figure seem to mix spatial ambiguities andillusionism with emphasis on materialism of a painted object. Theartist mixes the real and ideal in a way that collides the symbol andsurface by mixing the scientific illustration languages and aestheticdimensions. This makes the work ideal for use in the current work.There is much to be borrowed in terms of colouring and making oflines to reflect a feeling.
Emotional Day by Leonid Afremov
LeonidAfremov is a Belarusian painter. He is among the most colourfulpainters. This piece is referred to as Emotional Day. It is doneusing oil paint. The artist has used colours to illustrate a vividscene of a woman and a man. He has used the painting to illustrate anemotional scene between a man and a woman. Leonid has effectivelyused the thick strokes where the colours are merging. This reflectsthe creative use of art to capture emotions using vibrant coloursbased on the perspective of the artist. Such a move shows thepersonality of an artist and uniqueness of each artistic style. Forinstance, in most cases in art, the palette knife is used duringcleaning the old paint from the brushes that are used for paintingthe canvas. Instead, Leonid has used the same knife to paint hiscanvas. Though the knife can give very good possibilities, masteringit can be very difficult. Looking at the painting, it is hard tobelieve that the small details were done with the pallet knife. Thisis a clear indication of the importance of sharpening one’s skillsto the level that the interaction with almost all tools will give anoutstanding piece. This is not only a motivation for my work but veryinformative. This work is a clear indication that colours can be usedto mark the emotional experiences of the immigrants.
Amber,E. L. (2011). Expressive arts therapies: Working with survivors oftorture. Torture21 (1),pp. 39-47.
Ducasse,C. J. (2007). Artand the Language of the Emotions. TheJournal of Aesthetics andArt Criticism 23 (1), pp.109-112.
Duggleby,J. and Lawrence, J. (1998). StoryPainter: The Life of Jacob Lawrence.Chronicle Books.
Ismay,B. (1986). How Does Art Express Emotions? TheJournal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,45 (2),pp. 175-181.
Noy,P. and Noy‐Sharav,D., (2013). Art and emotions. InternationalJournal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 10(2),pp.100-107.
MobileElites. (2015). Deconstructing Belonging in Lifestyle Migration:Tracking the Emotional Negotiations of the British in Rural France.EuropeanJournal of Cultural Studies,pp. 1-23.
OfstedPublications. (2009). Making a Mark: Art, Craft and Design Education.England.
PaulJ. S. (2005). Emotional responses to art: From collation and arousalto cognition and emotion. Reviewof General Psychology, 9, pp.342-357
Henrik,H., Reidar, H. & Vanessa, M. P. (2008). The Perception andEvaluation of Visual Art. EmpiricalStudies of the Arts 26 (2), pp.197-218.
Nina,G. S., Linda, B. and Christina, B. (1971). Transnational: A NewAnalytic Framework for Understanding Migration. New York. Annals NewYork Academy of Sciences.
Shugrina,M., Betke, M. and Collomosse, J., 2006, June. Empathic painting:interactive stylization through observed emotional state. InProceedingsof the 4th internationalsymposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering(pp. 87-96). ACM.
Silvia,P.J., (2005). Cognitive appraisals and interest in visual art:Exploring an appraisal theory of aesthetic emotions. Empiricalstudies of the arts,23(2),pp.119-133.
Svasek,M., (2012). Movingsubjects, moving objects: transnationalism, cultural production andemotions (Vol.1). Berghahn books.
Zorana,I., Jessica, H. and Marc, B. (2014). Creativity, Emotions and Arts.Santander, Spain. Botín Foundation.